Plenary Lecture

Plenary Lecture

Liposomes in Tuberculosis Diagnosis

Professor P. S. Bisen
Co-authors: Anish Zachariya, R. P. Tiwari
Bisen Biotech & Biopharma Pvt. Ltd.
M-7 Laxmipuram, Transport Nagar
Gwalior, India

Abstract: The tuberculosis which is responsible for several millions of deaths in the tropical world can be addressed very effectively if diagnosed at an early stage. The diagnosis of tuberculosis continues to pose serious problems, mainly because of difficulties in differentiating between patients with active tuberculosis and those with healed lesions, normal mycobacterium boris BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccinated individuals, and unvaccinated Manteux positives. The present study explores the potential utility of liposomes in serodiagnosis (antibody as well as antigen based) of tuberculosis in humans. A cock tail of Glycolipid antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv were extracted purified and characterized by analytical techniques. The glycolipid antigens were either inserted in to liposomes or injected into rabbits for raising specific polyclonal antibodies. Affinity purified rabbit anti-glycolipid antibodies (IgG) were coupled to liposome particles (0.2-0.4 Ķm) in presence of 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinamide. Antibody-conjugated liposomes were employed by agglutination test for detection specific antigens. A visible dark blue agglutination within 4 minutes is seen if M. tuberculosis antigens are present in the diagnostic specimen. Hundreds of sera samples from subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for detection of M. tuberculosis specific antigens as well as antibodies by liposomal agglutination tests and the results were compared with conventional tests and those commercially available diagnostic tests. The liposomal agglutination tests were shown to be effective in diagnosing patients with active tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity and the prototype kits developed were compared with those commercially available kits in terms not only of sensitivity and specificity but also of rapidity and cost effectiveness. The technology has been evaluated in well known research institutions, hospitals, medical colleges and pathology centers among various parts of our country for itís sensitivity and specificity. The kit worked consistently well at every Institute / hospital where validation studies had taken place. The sensitivity, specificity, simplicity, cost effective ness have been established with clarity. The liposomal agglutination tests demands neither technical expertise nor expensive equipment for reading the result. The result can be read with naked eye and without any ambiguity with in 5 minutes. Another innovative feature of the technology developed is itís longevity even at ambient temperature. The liposomal kits do not require refrigeration either during transport or during storage. Thus the liposome based diagnostic technology is superior to existing ones, cost effective and is first of itís kind in the world.

Brief Biography of the Speaker:
Worked at University of Illinois at Chicago and at University of California, Davis, U.S.A. during 1986-87, Marie Curie Fellow of European Union in 1994,1996 and worked at Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK, DAAD Fellow in Bonn University, Germany in 1997 and 1998, UNDP Fellow at Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, (1978-1979) and 1982 and WHO Fellow at the Institute of Microbiology, Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czecholovakia in 1983. He has served as Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (1985 - 2001), Vice-Chancellor Jiwaji University, Gwalior (1994 to 1996), Dean, Academic, Planning and Development, Bundelkhand University, JHANSI, (U.P.) June 2004 to July 2005. Director, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior, (2001 - June 2004). Since 2007, Professor Bisen is an Honorary Professor of Biotechnology at Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India.
Presently, Professor Bisen is the Chairman of Bisen Biotech and Biopharma (P) Ltd. - a private equity venture which focuses on diagnostic solutions for widespread diseases. Professor Bisen is also the Chairman of the Vikrant Group, which focuses on advancing technical education through technical institutes at Gwalior and Indore, India.



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